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Trial pits 

Trial pits also known as test pits are commonly used to investigate shallow ground conditions to develop an understanding of the profile of soils within the ground. Trial pits are holes dug prior to construction to help ensure the ground conditions are suitable for building and construction projects. Trial pits can be more cost-effective than boreholes but they cannot reach the same depth. Trial pits can also […]

Permeability test of soil- Constant Head

Permeability is the ability of soil to allow the flow of water through the pore spaces between solid particles. The degree of permeability is determined by applying a hydraulic pressure gradient in a sample of saturated soil and measuring the consequent rate of flow. The coefficient of permeability is expressed as a velocity. Uses of […]

Direct Shearbox Test

The objective of the test is to determine the effective shear strength parameters of the soil, the cohesion (c’) and the angle of internal friction (φ). These values may be used for calculating the bearing capacity of a soil and the stability of slopes. Direct Shear Test is considered one of the most common and […]

California Bearing Ratio test – Three Point Method

This method covers the laboratory determination of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of a compacted sample of soil – three point method, which is the prescribed method in the Pavement and Materials Design Manual. The CBR value is the resistance to a penetration of 2.5 mm of a standard cylindrical plunger of 50 mm diameter, […]

California Bearing Ratio Test – One Point Method

The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test is a measure of the resistance of a material to penetration of a standard plunger under controlled density and moisture conditions. It was developed by the California Division of Highways as a method of classifying and evaluating soil subgrade and base course materials for flexible pavements. The strength of […]

The Proctor Compaction Test

The Proctor Compaction Test establishes the maximum unit weight that a particular type of soil can be compacted to using a controlled compactive force at optimum water content. the objective of this test is to obtain relationships between compacted dry density and soil moisture content, using two magnitudes of manual compactive effort. The test is used […]

Bulk Density and Unit Weight for Undisturbed Samples

The Bulk Density of a soil is the ratio of the total mass to the total volume. The Unit Weight of the soil is the ratio of the total weight (a force) to the total volume. This procedure describes a practical way of determining the Bulk Density and Unit Weight on undisturbed samples obtained by […]

Specific Gravity Determination

The knowledge of the Specific Gravity is essential in relation to other tests, especially for calculating porosity and voids and for computation of particle size analysis from a sedimentation procedure (Hydrometer analysis). It is also important when compaction and consolidation properties are considered. Required equipment •        2 nos. 50 mL density bottles (pyknometers) with stoppers […]

Moisture Content

The moisture content test is to determine the amount of water present in soil expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry soil. The moisture content of a soil is assumed to be the amount of water within the pore space between the soil grains which is removable by oven-drying at a temperature not […]

Plasticity Tests for Soil

Plasticity is an important characteristic in the case of fine soils, the term plasticity describing the ability of a soil to undergo unrecoverable deformation without cracking or crumbling. In general, depending on its water content (defined as the ratio of the mass of water in the soil to the mass of solid particles), a soil […]